Manual The Scan Charts: Fully revised and expanded

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We have just added new street maps of Scottish towns held within Post Office Directories. As well as naming all streets, the Post Office Directory maps show good detail of all the built-up areas, clearly highlighting public buildings, churches and chapels, schools, railways, tramways, docks, harbours, public gardens and parks, and many other urban features.

How to Scan Charts to Swing Trade

Sometimes too, the Post Office Directory maps show boundaries of parishes, municipal wards, and parliamentary divisions. From the later 19th century, the Post Office Directories were issued every year for several larger towns, and so the Post Office maps can provide a far more regular chronology of urban change compared to Ordnance Survey maps.

The Post Office Directory maps allow the locations of people, industrial premises, and addresses that are listed in the Scottish Post Office Directories to be viewed geographically. These two atlases , deriving from the work of Claudius Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD, describe geographical principles and locations from the Classical World. Ptolemy's Geography was a synthesis of Greek scientific and geographic thought, and its re-discovery and printing in Western Europe in the 15th century had a catalytic effect on Renaissance cartography. The Geography provides both a description of methods for mapping the known world and an extensive table of known places and their geographical locations based on the Ptolemaic system.

The purpose of the text was to provide sufficient information for maps to be constructed by a suitably skilled cartographer. Read further information about Claudius Ptolemy and the Geography. The Times Survey Atlas of the World was a landmark folio world atlas, defining the world and its countries in detail for the period after the First World War.

It included colour maps, all specially compiled for the Atlas over the previous 5 years, and including many thematic maps, as well as political and topographic maps. The topographic maps all show layer-coloured relief, whilst charts of the oceans are shaded for bathymetry. We have recently added a further estate maps of south-west Scotland. These show the rural landscape in great detail - including farms, buildings, fields, woodland, roads, and rivers - dating from the s to the s.

All were commissioned by landowners to plan agricultural improvement, including enclosure, drainage, new roads, and consolidation of farms, as well as mining. Our new additions include the Maxwells of Monreith Estate Maps and Plans, , a set of estate maps and accompanying schedules surveyed by John Gillone in , relating to Monreith estate in Wigtownshire. This also includes estate maps scanned by the Dumfries Archival Mapping Project , who we are very pleased to be collaborating with. We have been pleased to collaborate with the British Library in a recent project, funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund, to scan, georeference and make available more Ordnance Survey mapping for south-west England.

Another benefit of the project is that the British Library have filled gaps in our incomplete holdings of these series, so that our online presentation of these series is now much more complete, including the British Library maps. You can alter your altitude, tilt and orientation to explore any one of our georeferenced map layers draped over a 3D landscape. It is also possible to fade the transparency and view different base maps.

WebGL is widely supported by modern web browsers - you can check if your browser is supported. This split-screen map viewer allows you to compare land use in Scotland in the s with land use in It shows how striking the changes have been in the Scottish landscape during the 20th century, particularly due to widespread afforestation and expanding towns and cities.

At the more local level, it is also possible to see new reservoirs, new roads, and significant changes to patterns of arable and pasture land. This is a collaborative project with Historic Environment Scotland to whom we are very grateful for allowing their Historic Land-use Assessment HLA Map layer to be used in this application. The Blaeu Atlas Maior or Cosmographia Blaviana is one of the largest and most splendid of the multi-volume Dutch world atlases.

Published in , its maps and 3, pages of texts collectively presented the state of geographic knowledge of the world in the mid 17th century. The Atlas Maior was the most expensive book that could be acquired in the midth century - a lavish and splendid item for display by its powerful and wealthy customers. We are very grateful to David Rumsey for supporting the scanning and wider dissemination of this atlas. To commemorate the International Year of Soils , we are delighted to have collaborated with the James Hutton Institute to present online a set of detailed soil maps covering cultivated parts of Scotland.

These were researched and published by the Macaulay Land Use Research Institute in Aberdeen, forming a set of strikingly attractive coloured maps categorising and portraying soil type, using Ordnance Survey one-inch to the mile base mapping. Read further information about the Soil Survey , including how the surveying was done and how the maps were prepared. The Soil Survey of Scotland mapping can be viewed using a clickable map of Scotland and as an ordered list.

We have also georeferenced them as a layer, so that they can be viewed as a zoomable overlay on a Bing map or satellite layer or in our Side by side viewer. Our Historic Maps Subscription API service allows you to incorporate five detailed historic georeferenced map layers in your own website. The layers include coverage of Great Britain at scales of six-inch to the mile or , , medium-scale mapping at , and ,, as well as London at , scale.

The layers have been optimised for very quick display and distributed under reliable and fast hosting. The Historic Maps Subscription API conforms with international web-mapping standards, and so the layers are simple to incorporate inside your own web mapping applications with demonstration viewers and code.

These layers are available by subscription, and complement our Historic Maps API that we intend will remain free. The Land Utilisation Survey was the first systematic and comprehensive depiction of land cover and use in Scotland , under the superintendence of L. Dudley Stamp. The recording of land use was carried out by volunteers, particularly schoolchildren and students, using Ordnance Survey six-inch to the mile field sheets.

All land was colour-coded into six main categories and reduced the one-inch to the mile scale for publication. View the maps using a clickable map of Scotland , as a seamless layer on a modern satellite or map base , or as a list of sheets. Read further information about the Land Utilisation Survey. This series is the most detailed topographic mapping covering England and Wales from the s to the s.

This layer currently just covers counties in south-east England, but will expand geographically as scanning continues. Search using a graphic index , or view a list of all sheets. We have added charts covering Scottish coastal waters in the 19th and 20th centuries. These are all our holdings of Admiralty charts of the Scottish coastline and adjacent seas, published over 50 years ago. Admiralty Charts show many coastal features in good detail, and are also useful in predating the work of Ordnance Survey for many northern counties before the s.

Read further information about the Admiralty charts. The maps can be viewed using a clickable map and as an ordered list. We have also georeferenced a selection of charts, so that they can be viewed as zoomable overlays on a Bing map or satellite layer or in our Side by side viewer. We have updated all our map viewers, offering a number of improvements to viewing and printing. You may now easily rotate all images by holding down your [Alt] and [Shift] keys while dragging the mouse cursor. All map images now load faster, and zooming and panning is more responsive, especially on mobile devices.

We have also introduced new improvements to viewing results in the Find By Place , Roy and OS records viewers, dynamically linking the main map and results panels on mouse hover to help select the right map. The new viewers are built upon OpenLayers 3 and are compatible with all current release standards-compliant web browsers. These maps of Jamaica are the most informative maps of the island in the early 19th century.

They show its detailed topography, including the geographic distribution and location of sugar plantations and their owners at the sugar industry's peak, shortly before the abolition of slavery. James Robertson was born on the island of Yell in Shetland, and emigrated to Jamaica where he owned a sugar plantation and worked as a surveyor. In , Robertson petitioned and was appointed by the Assembly to survey Jamaica, producing a three-sheet map of the whole island at a scale of two miles to the inch , , and 3 four-sheet maps of each county Cornwall, Middlesex and Surrey at a scale of one-inch to the mile , James Robertson's Maps of Jamaica can be viewed using a clickable map , and a georeferenced overlay , or in a side-by-side viewer allowing comparison to modern Google or Bing layers , or via individual map sheets.

We have just upgraded our collaborative online Georeferencer application with several new features. These include the ability to view the map side-by-side and zoom and pan, comparing the historic map directly with a modern map or satellite layer or to other maps. You can also try out different transformation options for each georeferenced map based the control points entered already. The Georeferencer application is a collaborative online project, where anyone can view selected early maps from our collection, and help georeference them, adding control points to more accurately position them in the real world.

The Georeferencer application includes 1, early maps of Scotland, including town plans, county maps, coastal charts, and maps of the whole of Scotland. It complements our main Explore Georeferenced Maps application, where you can view the resulting georeferenced maps. We are pleased to make available the earliest editions of Ordnance Survey National Grid maps at , scale covering central London. This mapping covers an area of about 20 square miles, made up of 4, sheets , each covering x metres on the ground.

The maps show nearly all permanent features of over 1 square metre in size, showing excellent detail of commercial and residential buildings, railway stations, docks, factories and parks, as well as house names and numbers. This layer will expand geographically over the next year as we continue to scan more OS National Grid post-War mapping. The maps can be viewed using a clickable map , as a georeferenced overlay or in a side-by-side viewer allowing comparison to modern Google or Bing layers , and using an ordered list.

We have added a further early maps of Scotland and of Edinburgh. They were collected by supporters of the Jacobite cause from exile in France in the 18th and 19th centuries, and acquired by the Library in The new additions also include a number of detailed maps of Edinburgh in the 19th century, particularly showing the feuing of land, planning new roads and buildings, and infrastructure developments.

We are pleased to make available the earliest editions of Ordnance Survey National Grid maps covering the Edinburgh environs. Toward the end of the Second World War, Ordnance Survey prioritised the mapping of urban areas on new National Grid sheet lines, and at the detailed , scale for urban areas with a population of over 20, people. The maps show nearly all detached features of over 1 square metre in size, as well as house numbers. We have focused on Edinburgh initially as part of our collaborative work with the MESH Edinburgh Atlas project , and we plan to extend coverage geographically in the future.

The maps can be viewed using a clickable map , as a georeferenced overlay allowing comparison to modern Google or Bing layers , and using an ordered list. We are pleased to make available all our holdings of trench maps of the Western Front maps. Trench maps are a primary source for studying the battlefields of the Western Front, and the location of enemy positions and defences.

They record the names that soldiers gave the trenches, as well as the names of nearby farms, villages, woods, and other landmarks. Accurate locations, and the distances and bearings between them were essential for the artillery, and trench maps also illustrate the innovative survey, compilation, and printing technologies that advanced rapidly during the War. Comparing trench maps to each other over time, and to the present day, allows a detailed and fascinating graphic insight into the changing topography of the Western Front.

The maps can be viewed using a clickable map , as georeferenced overlays and using an ordered list. It is also possible to compare the georeferenced maps side-by-side to each other, and compare them to modern satellite images and maps. This series is the most comprehensive topographic mapping covering all of England and Wales from the s to the s.

It was revised for the whole country twice between and between , and then updated regularly for urban or rapidly changing areas from to the s. The maps are immensely valuable for local and family history, allowing most features in the landscape to be shown. This newly added one-inch 2nd edition Hills , series complements our existing Ordnance Survey one-inch 2nd edition, mapping of Scotland. Creating that plan requires top-down critical thinking about what is appropriate for the setting, and what is important to the organization and its strategic vision, goals and objectives.

Engaging the leadership team, staff and other key stakeholders throughout the entire planning process is essential. So is searching out and investing in leaders with strong technology expertise. How does an organization go about linking technology with the strategic plan and business operations goals?

Providers are advised to engage firms that have strong IT expertise, knowledge about aging services, and a track record in long-term and post-acute care. Piscataway, NJ. Technology governance is often overlooked, but it is essential to successful long-term implementation of a technology strategy. Why is technology governance so important? Any organization making technology investments is always challenged by project outcomes, timelines and expenditures.

A robust technology governance structure is critical to maneuvering through these challenges. This investment could involve tapping into a combination of in-house staff and outsourced resources. The role of the Information Technology IT Department has been evolving within organizational structures for many years.

With this evolution came the decision, on the part of many organizations, that the IT department would report directly to the Chief Financial Officer CFO. However, most CTOs have a hands-on role on developing, programming or building on a technology of the enterprise. The typical CIO is a former System Administrator who developed his or her skills in the areas of executive management and worked up the chain of command after showing consistent, successful results. Additionally, the CIO is responsible for providing the organization with a strategic vision, creating IT goals, and developing a path for the organization to reach those goals.

Any long-term, broad organizational strategy must take into consideration this larger technological vision. Most aging services provider organizations conduct strategic planning. However, conversations with providers and their strategic planning partners indicate that not many provider organizations incorporate strategic IT planning into the strategic planning process.

When a technology professional becomes a member of the leadership in an aging services organization, he or she often oversees the implementation of specific and narrowly focused projects or manages a small IT department tasked with keeping the IT infrastructure and day-to-day operations running and in compliance. Of course, there are exceptions to every rule. A few of the larger multi-site organizations have CIOs who have significant strategic-level responsibilities and conduct strategic IT planning. Some of these CIOs have advanced IT capabilities and occasionally lend strategic planning help, as well as ongoing support, to other providers through outsourcing or shared services programs.

Smaller organizations, including single-site communities, may not see the need for, or have the financial resources to hire, a full-time CIO. They can:. It is not uncommon for nonprofit aging services organizations to be 10 to 20 years behind in their IT solutions. In larger national organizations, it is the corporate practice to restrict the IT infrastructure to business administration, while decentralizing and localizing IT services for residents.

Strategic planning helps an organization establish priorities to better meet its mission. Traditionally, strategic planning allows an organization to create a strategic vision by projecting a desired future. Every strategic planning process is uniquely designed to meet a specific need, according to Carter McNamara, a strategic planning expert with Authenticity Consulting in Minneapolis, MN.

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In his online guide to strategic planning models, McNamara suggests that good strategic planning starts with the selection of a planning approach that fits the organization and its reason for planning. Carter McNamara advises an organization to conduct strategic planning: 4.

McNamara notes that not all phases of strategic planning have to be completed each year. Most organizations will conduct a full strategic planning process every 3 years and do incremental planning annually. If the organization is experiencing tremendous change, it should conduct a full strategic planning process every year. Action plans should be updated each year.

The frequency of that review will depend on the extent and rate of change in and around the organization. A planning team should conduct strategic planning. That team should include the chief executive officer, board chair, board members, and a host of organizational stakeholders, as outlined below. Having a technology champion on the board may help insure that technology is ingrained in the strategic planning process.

That board member may also oversee the strategic IT planning process. Carter McNamara recommends that organizations follow these guidelines when creating their planning team: 5. McNamara suggests that different types of team members may be needed at different times in the planning process.

Have doubts about whether to include specific individuals in the planning process? McNamara suggests that you err on the side of inclusion. Goal-based strategic planning is the most common model of strategic planning. But, it is not suited to every organization, says McNamara. McNamara recommends the vision-based model for organizations that do not have a large number of current issues to address, have sufficient resources to focus on an ambitious vision, and have external environments that are not changing very rapidly. While vision-based planning works from the future to the present, issues-based strategic planning works from the present to the future.

The organization identifies issues that affect it today and then devises strategies for addressing those issues. An organization that undertakes issues-based planning for a year may want to undertake vision-based planning after it strengthens its internal operations, he says. McNamara recommends the alignment model for organizations that need to fine-tune their strategies or find out why those strategies are not working.

Scenario planning is defined as the process of visualizing what the future is likely to look like, what the consequences of future conditions or events are likely to be for the organization, and how the organization might respond to or benefit from those conditions or events. McNamara recommends that scenario planning might be used in conjunction with other strategic planning models to ensure that planners truly undertake strategic thinking.

He suggests that this model may be particularly useful in identifying strategic issues and goals. The organic or self-organizing planning model is similar to the development of an organism, says McNamara. Rather than following a series of defined steps, this model evolves and unfolds. Real-time planning is designed for those who feel that conventional strategic planning has become outdated in our rapidly changing world. McNamara recommends this method of planning for organizations operating in rapidly changing environments.

Like organic planning, real-time planning will present certain challenges to an organization, says McNamara. For example, the organization may need to explain to investors and funders why it is not following a more traditional strategic planning model. LeadingAge, CAST, and their business partners have created numerous resources to help in your strategic planning efforts. The 10 steps of strategic planning described in this section come from an online guide to planning by Emily Gantz McKay, president of EGM Consulting, a Washington, DC-based social justice-focused consulting group that provides services to nonprofit organizations, community planning bodies, public agencies, and private philanthropic groups.

McKay suggests that the strategic planning process revolve around a joint board-staff planning retreat. Steps of the process should occur before the retreat, she says.

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Steps take place during the retreat, and Steps take place after the retreat. Organizations should begin their strategic planning process during a board meeting with key staff present, says McKay. This important first step can also take place during a special meeting or retreat that includes board members, key staff and some external stakeholders. McKay recommends that organizations establish a special committee or task force to manage the strategic planning process.

Choose participants who are committed to and willing to devote significant time to the planning process, she says. McKay urges organizations to allocate sufficient staff time to the strategic planning process. The strategic planning process sometimes works best when facilitated by an outsider knowledgeable about the organization or about community-based organizations in general, says McKay. A facilitator should be someone who is:. Sometimes a former board member or former executive director can fill this role, she says. Some foundations provide management assistance grants that can help pay for a consultant or an in-depth environmental scan.

The external scan identifies and assesses opportunities and threats in the external environment. The planning team will use the scan to identify the opportunities and threats facing the organization. An extensive external scan may involve primary research to assess community needs through interviews, focus groups and surveys, or you may collect data from secondary market research reports available for the target market.

The organization may want to incorporate all of these options in the scanning process. The organization does not necessarily have to hire an outside consultant to conduct the environmental scan.

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The committee might also help conduct external interviews with community leaders, especially if no outside consultant is hired. The environmental scan should provide an analysis of organizational strengths and weaknesses and external opportunities and threats. It should also include aspects related to technology-use trends, attitudes and expectations. This information will help the organization develop IT-related strategies and plans. Board and staff members should be familiar with the findings of the environmental scan before strategic planning decisions are made.

During step 3 in the planning process, the planning team specifies strategic issues or questions that the organization should address, and then prioritizes those issues or questions. If members of the planning team do not agree on general directions and organizational goals, they should take a more in-depth look at issues so they can make critical choices. A good place to start, says McKay, is to identify and prioritize strategic issues that emerged from the market research and environment scan.

The planning team should emerge from step 3 with a set of high-priority strategic issues that would be discussed during a joint board-staff retreat, says McKay. The process of reaching consensus on these elements will differ from one organization to the next. Workgroups may draft specific language for the values, mission and vision statements.

The strategic planning committee may refine that language before it is brought to the board for approval. This vision is often developed after the planning team has discussed a vision for the outside community, because a shared vision of the organization can be dependent on a shared vision of what the outside community should become. The planning committee might describe a broad vision for the organization that address its mix of programs, reputation, signature initiatives or key accomplishments, says McKay.

Alternatively, the organizational vision might be more specific. McKay suggests myriad techniques that planning teams can use to arrive at a shared vision. Alternatively, individuals could complete a formal worksheet indicating where they see the organization in 5 years. Or, it could ask questions about specific organizational characteristics like budget, staff composition, or desired technologies and IT infrastructure. The full group would use the responses to reach consensus on a shared vision. The development of a shared vision is usually best done with both board and staff involvement.

Small organizations may find it practical to conduct a one-stage process involving both board and staff members. For a large organization, a 2-stage process might be useful. First, staff would work together on a vision. Then, the board and key staff members would review and incorporate the staff vision with their own. McKay recommends that organizations transform the vision they developed in step 5 into a series of key goals for the organization. These goals can be identified very effectively using status statements describing what the organization will look like in a specified number of years, assuming that the organization is successful in fulfilling its mission.

The program status statements might read:. The relationship status statements might read:. Consider the major technology applications and technological infrastructure you need to support your institutional development goals. The governance status statements might read:. Key strategies will help the organization reach its goals and address issues identified through the environmental scan.

The process of identifying and agreeing on key strategies requires that the organization look at where it is now, where its vision and goals indicate it wants to be, and what strategies will help it get there, says McKay. In this day and age, technology and a robust IT infrastructure should be one of the foundational strategies to support and enable other strategies.

Moreover, technology applications may be key elements of different other strategies. Organizations should use the strategic planning process to re-examine their IT infrastructure and make sure that they are adequate for today, can handle future requirements like increasing demands on data, and can be scaled easily and cost-effectively.

McKay suggests that the board provide broad guidance to this effort. The planning group or staff can do much of the detailed analysis, she says. Organizations can take a variety of approaches to identifying key strategies, according to McKay. These approaches include:. Classify the application, based on how critical they are to reaching your strategic goals. Technology applications might include:. The action plan should address the goals outlined in the strategic plan, and should include specific objectives and work plans. The action plan should be updated on an annual basis.

The action plan will guide the organization through the implementation process over the short term. McKay recommends that organizations develop detailed objectives only for the first year, as well as annual action plans. The action plan should include:. Staff often will take major responsibility for program-related goals and objectives, she says. The board should develop goals and objectives related to governance. The board must approve the action plan. However, McKay recommends that staff develop the written plan, since program implementation is a staff function.

The written strategic plan should summarize the results and decisions of the strategic planning process. Note that the strategic IT plan discussed in section 5 of this workbook should be included in the overall strategic plan. McKay offers a checklist of tasks that organizations should complete each year in order to use their strategic plan as a compass to guide progress. Organizations in need of outside expertise should consider the following LeadingAge Partners as resources for their strategic planning needs. In order to develop the most comprehensive technology plan, organizations must consider multiple steps as they gather information and formulate plans.

Effective strategic information technology IT plans should address these elements of the organization:. Organizations often do not take the last three elements—organizational objectives, data analytics and integration—into account early in the strategic IT planning process. One of the most important steps in strategic IT planning may seem obvious, but many IT leaders often overlook it.

The IT Department must support and enable the overarching goals and objectives of the organization. It must ensure that it is not developing its own plans and objectives in a silo. As an IT leader, you should make certain that you understand all of the products or services that your organization offers. You should also be familiar with initiatives that competing organizations are carrying out, especially if your organization wants to carry out the same initiatives. It is prudent for the IT department to ask some of the following questions as the technology plan is being developed:.

The answers to these questions will likely drive many of the strategic IT objectives in your technology plan. The instrument was developed for Aging Services of Minnesota. A comprehensive inventory of IT infrastructure components is critical to developing a technology plan. Knowing the current state of technology today will ensure that its configuration and scalability will sustain the organization into the future. As the strategic technology plan is developed, it is very helpful to maintain a current, and detailed, master inventory of any and all systems.

As you gather this information, it can be helpful to organize the systems based on the purpose they serve. Some systems may serve a dual role. In certain situations, taking an inventory will help uncover redundant systems that may be combined, repurposed or eliminated. Start by documenting what Internet service provider ISP connections your organization has today. An ISP is a company that offers access to the Internet and to email, usually for a monthly fee. Specify the type of connection, speed of the connection for both download and upload, and the agreement terms for each connection.

Next, document any hardware that is supporting WAN connectivity. Document the make, model, put-into-service date, and active warranty information for each piece of hardware. Include modems, routers and firewalls. Next, document the hardware that makes up the internal LAN. Inventory the make, model, put-into-service date, and active warranty of each core switch, edge switch, wireless controller, and access point that you have on your network.

It is also very helpful to develop a site map for each building within your organization. Map out locations of edge switches, access points, and network or phone outlets. Evaluate the hardware that is currently in the data center by the role it plays. For each piece of hardware, document the make, model, put-into-service date, operating system, and active warranty information.

Common data center equipment may include:. User devices include common hardware items like workstations, laptops and printers, as well as mobile devices like tablets, smart phones or other technology devices. For each device, document the make, model, put-into-service date, operating system and active warranty information.

There are information systems available today designed to assist with the deployment, monitoring, inventory and management of devices. These applications can produce reports on hardware make, model, software versions and critical updates, and will be critical in helping you develop the strategic IT plan. This makes it vitally important to have a mobile device management MDM platform in place. MDMs allow you to remotely manage a device should it get lost or stolen. Moreover, organizations should have policies governing the use of the mobile devices, and the management of personal devices that employees have permission to use at work.

There are also significant costs and risks associated with software licensing. It is important to document and properly license each piece of software installed on servers and user devices. Inventory systems that are designed to promote the use of resident monitoring. These systems include fall prevention devices, motion sensors, and health telemetry devices like scales, blood pressure monitors and pulse oximeters. The toolkit was developed for Aging Services of Minnesota.

Assessing the IT competencies of staff, both inside and outside the IT department, allows organizations to better understand their staffing, training and support needs. Perform a critical evaluation of your current IT support staff. Learn what your staff is good at and what they enjoy doing. Organizations that have a smaller IT department may find that one person is performing many of the roles listed above. Larger IT departments may delineate these roles and find highly skilled and specialized staff to fulfill specific responsibilities.

In many cases, organizations find a great deal of value in outsourcing some or all of these roles to professionals who are capable of efficiently and cost-effectively fulfilling these responsibilities. IT leaders should understand the competencies of all organization staff members who use information systems on a daily basis.

This understanding will help you realistically identify the needs for training and support on existing and new technologies that might be included in the technology plan. Consider using this sample instrument from the Stratis Health Toolkit to conduct a survey of general computer skills. IT leaders should meet with each operational area of the business to inventory the software applications used, assess the technical competencies of users, and determine gaps in functionality.

It may be feasible to meet with each user in the department. However, it may make more sense to identify department managers or super-users from larger departments. Include departments and business units that are in the formation stage, and departments that may not use technology today. These departments may benefit from using a technology application in the future. Your questions will be different for each operational department. For example, during the Finance Department meeting, you will want to ask questions like:.

Asking these types of questions will get department members to open up about their workflows and business processes. By the end of each discussion, everyone will have developed a sense of whether or not the department has the right software tools, policies and procedures, and equipment to fulfill its responsibilities most effectively. The discussion will also help you identify needs and develop a plan that will get your organization to the desired state.

An IT leader may discover that departments are not sharing data with one another. This is an incredible opportunity for the IT department to create organizational efficiency through data interfacing and interoperability. As you meet with different departments, take note of the number of times the same data elements are entered into one or more software applications.

During one operational assessment meeting, for example, it was discovered that the human resources department was entering employee demographic information—name, social security number, address, and contact information—in 11 different pieces of software. It is not unusual to uncover this type of manual labor and rekeying of data. Good science is essential to solving these problems, but really good studies are also difficult to design and rare.

So why trust this tutorial? Nikolai Bogduk has authored dozens of scientific papers about low back pain. He also questions and challenges many common beliefs about low back pain, and is one of the expert sources this tutorial relies upon. Its dorky, quirky thoroughness is unique.

I will not just tell you what you want to hear. Understanding low back pain as well as possible is valuable, but it will not necessarily lead to a cure. Sadly, some low back pain cannot be fixed. Other articles on PainScience. Testimonials on health care websites reek of quackery, so publishing them has always made me a bit queasy. These are all genuine testimonials, mostly received by email. In many cases I withold or change names and identifying details. Thank you immensely for the best, most sensible and credible information on back pain. So glad you came up in my google search.

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Credible, reassuring, and humorous too. I purchased the low back tutorial recently and got the free trigger points one also. Many thanks. They are great! I had already accessed the perfect spot series and have been working on my trigger points. It is very pleasing to have the full discussion of the physiology , and I now have a much better idea about the whole ghastly business.

Your presentation is excellent. I spent seven hours straight sitting at my computer and my back didn't hurt at all! Thanks so much. I had suffered from undiagnosed and seemingly untreatable low back pain since late August last year.

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Three physiotherapists, my GP, two RMTs, and my generally excellent personal trainer failed to help me make any progress. At my last visit to my GP in late December, he maintained his insistence that I just needed to loosen up my hamstrings! The systematic approach you took to reviewing all the supposed cures and providing a clear analysis of each and no doubt saved me thousands of dollars and months of frustration. That gave me the focus to work on trigger points known to cause LBP with the help of some additional books and a great TP therapy app for my phone.

I love what you do, I read your site often, and I recommend it to friends. Thanks more than you know. I have had life-altering low back pain for more than 8 years. Sarno himself, injections, dry needling of trigger points and massage from a physiatrist, chiropractic work and more.

Your low back pain tutorial is refreshing. It was nice to read something clear and logical that is actually consistent with my experience. I teach a course, Medicine in Society , at St. Leonards Hospital in Hoxton. I originally stumbled across your website whilst looking for information about pain for my medical students, and have recommended your tutorials to them. Your work deserves special mention for its transparency, evidence base, clear presentation, educational content, regular documented updates, and lack of any commercial promotional material.

Oh, I get those too! I do not host public comments on PainScience. I have made many important changes to this tutorial inspired directly by critical, informed reader feedback. Some people demand their money back and get it. The complaints of my most disatisfied customers have strong themes:. Thanks to every reader, client, and book customer for your curiosity, your faith, and your feedback and suggestions, and your stories most of all — without you, all of this would be impossible and pointless.

Writers go on and on about how grateful they are for the support they had while writing one measly book , but this website is actually a much bigger project than a book. Thanks to my wife for countless indulgences large and small; to my parents for possibly blind faith in me, and much copyediting; and to friends and technical mentors Mike, Dirk, Aaron, and Erin for endless useful chats, repeatedly saving my ass, plus actually building many of the nifty features of this website. Rob Tarzwell, Dr.

Steven Novella , Dr.

Mark Crislip , Scott Gavura , Dr. Harriet Hall , Dr. Stephen Barrett , Dr. Greg Lehman , Dr. Ravensara Travillian, Dr. Tony Ingram, Dr. Jim Eubanks, Kira Stoops , Dr. Bronnie Thompson , Dr. James Coyne , Alex Hutchinson , Dr. David Colquhoun , Bas Asselbergs … and almost certainly a dozen more I am embarrassed to have neglected. I have some relationship with everyone named above, but there are also many experts who have influenced me that I am not privileged to know personally. Some of the most notable are: Drs. This tutorial has been continuously, actively maintained and updated for 15 years now, staying consistent with professional guidelines and the best available science.

The first edition was originally published in September , after countless hours of research and writing while I spent a month taking care of a farm and a beautiful pair of young puppies in the Okanagan. Regular updates are a key feature of PainScience. As new science and information becomes available, I upgrade them, and the most recent version is always automatically available to customers. Unlike regular books, and even e-books which can be obsolete by the time they are published, and can go years between editions this document is updated at least once every three months and often much more.

This tutorial has gotten major and minor updates since I started logging carefully in late plus countless minor tweaks and touch-ups. May — Updated : Added some good expert quotes and optimistic perspective on pain education from Moseley. April — Upgrade : Modernized the trigger point content and added several paragraphs about sensitization as well. March — More information : Added content about personality types and the prevalence of concealed stress and anxiety, inspired by Sapolsky.

February — New section : No notes. Just a new section. January — Expansion : Today I added a little depth on a couple key points, and commentary on a really interesting example of specific spinal pain from Dr. The nerve pinch myth. Expanded the discussion of implications of Jayson as promised last month. It has been available as a free article for quite a while, and it will remain so indefinitely. Although this content is not exclusive to the book, it definitely does belong here. Treatment by nerve destruction.

After reviewing the same scientific papers previously cited more carefully, I decided that they were much less promising than I originally thought. Although the topic is not covered in detail here, much study went into making this summary possible. The bottom line is now that the science is inconclusive and discouraging instead of optimistic.

Sorry, everyone. The alignment theories: short legs, pelvic tilts, and spinal curves. Some light editing of everything else in the chapter.